Vestibular Pathologies

A number of pathologies affect the vestibular apparatus, nerves or the part of the brain that interprets the vestibular information.  

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency 

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

Neurotoxicity / Ototoxicity 

3PD Persistent Postural Perceptual Dizziness

Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome EAS


Unilateral Vestibular Pathology

Meniere’s Disease, Acoustic Neuroma – Vestibular Schwannoma, Neuritis / Neuronitis /

Labyrinthitis / Third Window Syndrome 


Any pathology that affects the function - physiology of the vestibular apparatus on one side is known as a unilateral vestibular pathology. The damage may range from mild loss to complete loss. Some pathologies can also affect both vestibular apparatus. Early stage and chronic – when damage is partial is known as Vestibular Hypofunction or Peripheral Vestibular Weakness. 

Benign Paroxysmal Positional Vertigo (BPPV) 

BPPV are when the small otoconia (calcium carbonate crystals) from the otolith organs come loss and make their way into the semi-circular canals. 

Central Vestibular Pathology

Migraines, Stroke (CVA), Multiple Sclerosis, Cerebellar Pathology, CANVAS Syndrome, Parkinson’s Disease, Guillain Barre, Traumatic Brain Injury, Concussion. Any pathology that affects the part of the brain responsible for the interpretation of the information from the vestibular apparatus. 

3PD Persistent Postural Perceptual Dizziness

Commonly affecting persons between 30-50 years old. A disorder that creates an ongoing sensation of imbalance and visual motion – dizziness. Visit Resources to see more information 

Cervicogenic Dizziness

Pain occurring in the neck with associated sensory integration issues leading to the sense of dizziness, imbalance and difficulty with vision. 

Bilateral Vestibular Dysfunction

Reduction or loss of vestibular function bilaterally. 

Autoimmune Inner Ear Disease (AIED)

Immune system can mistakenly attack parts of the inner ear – including the vestibular system causing rapid onset of dizziness and imbalance.

Enlarged Vestibular Aqueduct Syndrome (EVAS)

The vestibular aqueduct (a part of the vestibular system) is enlarged often associated with an enlargement of the endolymphatic duct and sac. 

Mal De Debarquement Syndrome

“the Sea Sickness Syndrome” The illusion of movement is felt ongoingly after cessation of travel (boat, train, plane). 


An abnormal growth of the inner ear bone – causing a loss of its usual mobility and function.

Neurotoxicity / Ototoxicity 

Neurotoxicity is a poisoning of neurons in the brain that help control balance. Ototoxicity is poisoning of the inner ear apparatus.  


A symptom not really a vestibular disorder on its own, rather an abnormal noise perceived in one or both ears – or in the head. 

Vertebrobasilar Insufficiency 

The vertebral and basilar arteries that carry blood to the inner ear and brain may be restricted.

Vestibular Hyperacusis

Perception of unusual auditory sensitivity to noise or tones.